Billionaire Mark Cuban stated that the world's first trillionaire will be an entrepreneur who harnesses deep neural artificial intelligence. And nobody is arguing he's wrong. Machine learning and artificial intelligence via deep neural networks have been responsible for stunning breakthroughs in speech recognition (Siri & Cortana), pattern recognition (self-driving cars), and machine learning (predicting NFL football scores). Neural systems are disrupting dozens of areas including the financial sector, medical systems, and the legal profession. In this lively, informal, but informative session, Dr. James McCaffrey from Microsoft Research will describe the technical breakthroughs that occurred in 2016, the challenges of adding ML/AI knowledge into an organization, current areas of successful application of ML/AI, and a look ahead to the future: quantum computing, AI and fairness (GDPR), Reinforcement Learning, and homomorphic encryption.